Do You Know Who Your True Ally is During the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) Exam?
Almost all engineering students know the Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam is a computer-based test (CBT), and the NCEES FE Reference Handbook (version 9.5) is the only resource material that will be displayed on your exam monitor as a searchable PDF file. In this month’s article we will talk about this important “ally” and even create a practical case study.
By now, our readers, students and practicing engineers who are preparing to take their FE exam for the first time know that the most important advice they is to review the FE Reference Handbook (v. 9.5) as often as possible before the exam day and becoming familiar with the formulas, tables, charts, and other information in the reference book.
As we have indicated in earlier newsletters, you will not be allowed to bring your personal hard copy of the Handbook into the exam room. You must rely on the electronic PDF version of the FE Reference Handbook, which will be very similar to the printed hard-copy version. Quite often students ask us about the best strategy to find a formula or specific information in the searchable PDF file as quickly as possible. For this, the keyboard shortcut “CTRL-F” comes to the rescue. Below, we will create an actual case study to decipher the whole search process.
When you use the keyboard shortcut “CTRL-F”, you will be prompted with a dialogue search box to enter the keywords you would like to search for. Once your keywords have been entered, the keywords will show up highlighted in the reference manual and you can skip from one result to the other until you find exactly what you are looking for.
Case Study: Searching for the numerical value of the Modulus of Elasticity of Steel in the FE Reference Handbook (v. 9.5):
Most of us who regularly use values for the Modulus of Elasticity know that the modulus of elasticity of steel is E = 29 x 106 psi (29.0 Mpsi) in the U.S. Customary Unit System or E = 200 GPa in the SI unit system. These values are found on page 89 of the FE Reference Handbook.
As a case study, let us try to find these values in the PDF version of the FE Reference Handbook. Here are the possible steps for the search:
1. First you open the PDF file and once you see the cover of the Reference Handbook on your monitor, enter the keyboard shortcut “CTRL-F”. You will be prompted with a dialog search box with PREVIOUS and NEXT keys.
2. Type “Modulus of Elasticity of Steel” and hit the ENTER key. Surprisingly you will get the following message: “Acrobat has finished searching the document. No matches were found.” Then what do you do?
3. One possible next step would be to remove the word “steel” and leave the “Modulus of Elasticity” part and hit the ENTER or NEXT key again. Immediately Page 67 of the Reference Handbook will open, and you’ll see the following highlighted definition: The elastic modulus (also called modulus of elasticity, Young’s modulus) describes the relationship between engineering stress and engineering strain during elastic loading. But this definition is not what we are searching for. We are searching for the numerical values of the modulus of elasticity of steel, not its definition. Then what do you do?
4. The easiest way would be clicking the ENTER key or NEXT key on the dialog box again, then you’ll see another reference on page 67.
5. Clicking the ENTER/NEXT key again, will open the page 88 of the reference handbook.
6. If you keep clicking the ENTER/ NEXT key several more times, you’ll see references on other pages as well and finally the unpleasant message “Acrobat has finished searching the document. No matches were found.”
Now let us try to use another term as the search word in the dialog box for the Modulus of Elasticity, that is: Young’s Modulus. Once you enter “Young’s Modulus” and hit the ENTER key repeatedly, you’ll see references on Pages 246 and 248 of the Mechanical Engineering section of the handbook. Still we are not getting the numerical values. If you keep clicking the ENTER/NEXT key repeatedly, you’ll see references on several pages of the handbook and finally, BINGO! You’ll see the page that you’re looking for, the “Typical Materials Properties Table” on Page 89.
And lastly, we remind our readers that the F.E. and P.E. are very fast-paced exams and you will have little time to look up information. Therefore, make sure you are familiar with the electronic and hard-copy versions of the FE Reference Handbook. This will help you to build your confidence and conquer the exam on your first attempt!
Ahmet Zeytinci (Dr.Z.)
On Building Industry-Academia Collaborations
This month, my guest author Dr. Byunggu Yu, a well-known researcher and educator in Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence, will be exploring new ideas on Industry-Academia Collaborations:
There is a widening gap between academia and industry in the area of product development platforms (including technologies, knowledge, and techniques therein). Industry’s adoption of new development platforms is agile and additive, while academia’s adoption is conservative and supplanting.
We are in an era of rapid prototyping. Every industry player is looking for new product development platforms for competitive advantages. The variety of industry adopted platforms is rapidly growing. On the other hand, academic degree programs have a limited capacity in leading or catching up the inflation of the platforms. This is due to the fact that the programs are constantly required to meet various internal and external accreditation requirements. Therefore, the adoption of new product development platforms in academic curricula is conservative and supplanting.
Unlike academia, industry players have to keep their stakes in each adopted platform often through its legacy stages. They are mandated by existing customers/clients or by contracts to continue to maintain or service legacy systems, while competition in growth is constantly encouraging them to be agile in adopting new platforms. Therefore, industry’s adoption of new development platforms is often additive, further increasing the variety of development platforms they use.
Particularly in disciplines related to software engineering, such as computer science and its variants, there are hundreds of software development platforms and new platforms are being born every day, accelerated by the worldwide open source trend. The industry is much more agile in these changes than academia. Therefore, academic curricula, that also need to satisfy the slowly changing accreditation guidelines, cannot catch up the widely varying and rapidly evolving needs of the industry. For example, in the area of web applications, there are 28 development platforms listed on https://www.w3schools.com/whatis/ and even more open-source platforms that are not listed there. While our academic programs can cover a small subset of the platforms there, it is not and will never be enough. In fact, this gap between industry and academia has been rapidly widening.
The challenge we face here is summarized as follows: the percentage of new graduates from academic degree programs who can find exact job matches is decreasing. Therefore, both initial student success rates as well as our industry’s competency are being suppressed. Because this challenge is rooted at the interplay of the two different value systems – industry and academia – our approach should be collaborative. To be successful and effective, such collaborations need to be mutually beneficial.
This semester, we are conducting two experimental projects to address this challenge with our industry partners (companies). Project One is to build a system of industry-proposed projects for experiential learning in our classrooms; Project Two is to develop pre-employment weekend programs. Both projects are designed and conducted by industry-academia teams spanning graduating seniors, graduate students, faculty, and companies in various industries including health, logistics, marketing and advertising, information technology, and finance.
Project One can provide participating students with hands-on and experiential learning opportunities regarding various industry applications and development platforms beyond their curricula. At the same time, the industry partners can build a collaboration basis with the participating professors, which can extend their research capacity with a quick turnaround option. For Project One, we are collaborating with CapSource (www.capstonesource.com). CapSource has kindly helped us initiate and design various industry-academia collaboration projects.
For Project Two, our sponsoring companies including Precise Software Solutions developed a notion of “pre-employment certification program” as follows:
1. Company “C” wants to hire new graduates with a certain skill set (e.g., low-code programming on Appian and Agile-Scrum-Sprints);
2. A free tailor-made weekend or summer training program is designed and offered to graduating seniors;
3. The training sessions are taught by experts from Company “C” and optionally by participating professors;
4. Company “C” sponsors industry-recognized certifications and hires a number of top-performing students closing the program.
We have found that this kind of collaboration can produce Win-Win-Win if well designed and carefully communicated with high work standards and ethics: Students get a free training, certification, and employment opportunity; Professors can contribute to student success and get hands-on exposure to industry technologies and platforms; Sponsoring companies can identify and hire best tailor-made employees.
Dr. Byunggu Yu,
Professor of Computer Science